207. Inceptive verbs, often called
the fourth class of the irregular verbs, are a few verbs ending
in -cer and -cir preceded by a
vowel. These verbs, although otherwise regular, have a k-sound
(written c) inserted before endings beginning with
o or a. Here belong: conocer,
' to know,' and crecer, ' to grow.' Learn
their conjugation in 468.
208. Conocer and saber. Conocer
and saber may both be translated by the
English, ' to know.' Conocer means ' to perceive,'
' to be acquainted with,' ' to become acquainted with,' while saber
means ' to know' a thing or branch of learning by acquired
knowledge or understanding.
|Conozco a ese hombre
sé que es honrado.
|I know that man well and
I know he is honest.
|El niño sabe ya leer en inglés.
||The child knows how to read English already.
|¿No conoce usted ese país?
||Do you not know that country?
|No sabe lo que dice.
||He does not know what he says.
|No conozco bien el camino,
pero sé que pasa por allá.
|I do not know the road well, but I know it
passes through there.
209. Formation of Adverbs. Adverbs may
be formed in Spanish by adding -mente to the feminine
form of practically any adjective.
If the adjective has a written accent the adverb retains it.
a. Adverbial phrases are very common in Spanish, and
often become necessary if -mente with the adjective
makes a compound disagreeable to the Spanish ear.
de una manera prudente, con prudencia,
b. Adjectives are frequently used in Spanish with adverbial
||They lived happily.
210. Position of Adverbs. Before
the adjective and after the verb is the ordinary position of adverbs.
||She speaks well.
|Es horriblemente feo.
||He is horribly ugly.
a. When the verb has an object, the ordinary position
of the adverb is also immediately after the verb, but for greater
emphasis it may come after the object.
|Habla bien el español.
Habla el español bien.
||He speaks Spanish well.
211. Learn the indicative tenses of the radical-changing
verbs jugar, ' to play,' reír, '
to laugh,' sonreír, ' to smile,' 462,