110. The participles are formed
on the present stem.
a. The past participle is formed by adding -ado
in the first conjugation and -ido in
the second and third.
b.The present participle is formed by adding -ando
in the first conjugation and -iendo in
the second and third.
c. The present participle corresponds, in general, to
the English present participle, and may be used to express progressive
|Yo no estoy hablando.
||I am not talking.
|¿Qué estaba diciendo?
||What was he saying?
111. The Verb haber. Haber, '
to have,' is principally used as an auxiliary verb to form the compound
tenses. It is never used for tener to express possession.
The present indicative of haber is:
The past descriptive indicative of haber is regular:
Learn the past absolute of haber, 471.
112. The Present Perfect Tense. The present
perfect tense is formed from the present indicative of haber
and the past participle.
||I have come, I came
||you have come, you came
||he or she has come,
you have come, etc.
||we have come, etc.
||you have come, etc.
||they or you have come, etc.
The use of the Spanish present perfect tense corresponds in general
to that of the English present perfect, but it may also be used
for the Spanish past absolute, especially in referring to recent
|Ayer lo ví (or
lo he visto).
||I saw him yesterday.
|He comprado dos caballos.
||I (have) bought two horses.
113. The Past Perfect Indicative. The
past perfect indicative is formed from the past descriptive indicative
of haber and the past participle: había
hablado, I had spoken; habías hablado, you
had spoken, etc. It corresponds in general to that of the
English past perfect.
no había llegado
cuando ví la casa.
|I had not yet arrived when
I saw the house.
a. The second past perfect indicative, formed from the
past absolute of haber and the past participle,
hube hablado, etc., is rarely used except
after conjunctions of time.
|Cuando hubo hablado
||When he had spoken,
they sat down.
114. Impersonal Use of haber.
In the infinitive, participle, and third person singular,
haber is used impersonally with the meaning ' to
be.' For ha, hay is used.
||There are no chairs here.
en la caja?
||What was there in the box?
|Habrá un concierto.
||There will be a concert.
115. The past participles of decir, escribir
and ver are irregular: dicho,
escrito, visto. For other irregular past participles, see