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Idioms with Tener, Deber, and Haber

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121. Tener que.  Tener que followed by the infinitive expresses obligation or necessity.

Tengo que estudiar mi lección. I have to study my lesson.
Teníamos mucho que hacer. We had much to do.
¿Tiene V. que ir ahora? Do you have to go now?

a. Moral obligation is more commonly expressed by deber (122).

b. Tener que may also denote mere provision.

No tenemos que comer. We have nothing to eat.

122. Deber.  Deber means primarily ' to owe.' From this are derived the ideas of necessity, obligation, duty.

Debo ir a ver a mi padre. I must go and see my father.
Debí estudiar ayer. I ought to have studied (it was my duty to study) yesterday.

a. Deber followed by the infinitive is also used to express probability. See also 103.

Debe estar malo. He is probably ill.

123. Haber de.  Haber de followed by an infinitive expresses (a) what is probably true in present time, (b) mere futurity, (c) volitional futurity.

a. Ha de ser muy rico. He must be very rich.
Ha de ser Carlos. It is probably Charles.
See 103 and 114.
b. Ha de venir mañana. He is coming to-morrow.
Han de dar un paseo. They are to take a walk.
c. He de castigarte si lo haces. I will punish you if you do it.
He de verla. I must see her (it is my intention to see her).

124. Haber que.   Haber que as an impersonal verb (see 114), followed by an infinitive, expresses also necessity, obligation, or mere futurity.

Hay mucho que estudiar. There is much to be studied.
Hay que hablar con cuidado.  One must speak with care.
Para llegar a tiempo hay que
ir aprisa.
To arrive on time we must hurry.

125. The Infinitive after Prepositions.

a. The infinitive is generally used in Spanish after a preposition where the present participle is used in English.

Vine sin verlo. I came without seeing him.
Tengo ganas de ir. I am desirous of going.
Después de comer, se fué. After eating, he went away.

b. ' On,' ' when,' ' as ' + a present participle is translated by al + the infinitive.

al llegar a la casa, on arriving (when we arrived, etc.) at the house.


Regular Present Indicative Endings of ar, er, ir verbs.
17. Negation.
24-26. Noun.
27. Possession
34. The Articles
42-45. Subject Pronouns
46. Nouns.
53. The Verb.
61-64. Adjectives
70-73. Apocopation of Adjectives
79. Irregular Verbs
80. Idiomatic Expressions
86. Irregular Past Absolute
95-96. The verbs: Ser and Estar
102-104. Future Indicative and Conditional
110-115. Formation Of The Participles
121-125. Idioms with Tener, Deber and Haber
131-133. Irregular Verbs:
139-140. Personal Pronouns
146-148. Two Object Pronouns
154-157. Prepositional Forms As Object Pronouns
163-168. Reflexive Verbs
174-178. Reflexive Verbs (Continued)
184-188. Gustar. Sí and No. Mismo.
194-195. Radical Changing Verbs.
201. Radical Changing Verbs (Continued)
207-211. Inceptive Verbs. Adverbs
216-220. Possessive Adjectives
226-228. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns
236-239. Relative Pronouns
245-250. Interrogative Adjectives and Pronouns
256-265. Numbers. Numerical Expressions
270-272. Verbs With Orthographic Changes
278-279. The Seasons, Months, Days Of The Week, Etc.

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