The Subjunctive in Adverb Clauses

334. The subjunctive may be used in Spanish in various adverb clauses.
The most important conjunctions and conjunctive expressions which may introduce subjunctives of this kind are the following:

a. Time or extent (temporal clauses).

antes (de) que, before hasta que, until
después de que, after luego que, as soon as
cuando, when siempre que, whenever
 
Levántese V. antes de que vengan. Rise before they come.
Iremos a verla después de
que V. haya venido.
We shall go to see her after you have come.
Dígale que cuando yo diga
es cuando debe venir.
Tell him that when I say so is when he must come.
Se lo diré cuando me lo pregunte. I shall tell it to him when he
asks me about it.
Estése aquí hasta que llegue
el tren.
Stay here until the train arrives.
Luego que llegue, se viene. When it arrives, you will come.
Siempre que vea a mis
amigos déles mis memorias.
Whenever you see my friends give them my regards.

;

b. Purpose or result.

a fin de que
de manera que
de modo que
para que
que
} in order (that), so that, so as
 
Se lo dijimos { para que
a fin de que
} viniese. We told it to him that
he might come.
 
Bajó la celosía { de manera
de modo que
} no entrase la luz. He lowered the blind
so that the light could not enter.
 
Voy a cerrar la puerta para
que no entre nadie.
I am going to close the door
so that no one will come in.
Iré de modo que no me vean. I shall go so that they may not see me.
Déselo todo que no vuelva
a pedir más.
Give it all to him so that he will not ask any more.

1. Negatively:

no sea que, lest
sin que, without
 
Déle el dinero ahora, no sea
que se le olvide.
Give him the money now, lest
you forget it.
Fuí sin que me llamaran. I went without being called.
Voy sin que me llamen. I am going without being called.

c. Condition.

dado que,   in case that
en caso (de) que,   in case that, if
a menos que
a no ser que
} unless, lest
que,   whether
sea que,   whether, if
 
Dado que se haya ido no hay razón para aflijirse. In case he has gone there is no reason for being distressed.
 
No voy { a no ser que
a menos que
} usted (no) vaya conmigo. I will not go unless you go
with me.
 
Que me pregunte o no,
yo no le diré nada.
Whether he asks or not,
I will not tell him anything.
Sea que ellos se decidan a
partir o no, yo partiré la
semana que viene.
Whether they decide to leave or not, I will leave next week.

d. Concession.

aunque, although, though, even if
a pesar de que, in spite of
aun cuando, even if
por . . . que, however
 
Aunque hayan venido,
no iré a verlos.
Although they have come,
I shall not go to see them.
Aunque se enojen,
no me importa.
Even if they become angry,
I do not care.
A pesar de que Vds. se lo
digan, no lo va a creer.
In spite of your telling it to him, he will not believe it.
Aun cuando no tengan nada,
no deben perder la esperanza.
Even when you have nothing,
you must not lose hope.
Por bueno que sea no lo
quiero.
However good it may be,
I do not want it.

335. In many of the above cases the indicative is used when stating facts, especially in past time.

Me fuí después de que vino. I went after he came.
Me lo dijo luego que llegó. He told it to me when he arrived.
Nos traía dulces siempre que venía. He brought us candy whenever
he came.
Cerró la puerta de manera
que nadie entró.
He closed the door so that no
one came in.
Aunque llovía salió. Although it was raining, he left.
Cuando nos dieron el dinero,
nos fuimos.
When they gave us the money, we left.